December 17 - 19
National Institute of Design
India
Abir Mullick

Georgia Tech, School of Industrial Design
Atlanta, United States

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Abir Mullick is professor at Georgia Tech in Atlanta. He has served in higher education for over 25 years, teaching Industrial Design and Architecture. As educator, scholar, researcher, and designer, he is a strong proponent of universal design. He is one of the authors of The Seven Principles of Universal Design. He is researching bathroom needs to develop a specific solution for Indian use, placing particular emphasis on public and community contexts. A Fulbright–Nehru Scholar-In-Residence at the National Institute of Design, Ahmadabad, his work is being supported by the NID, Sulabh International and HelpAge India.



Public Services:
Context and Opportunities

Motivation
Almost half of the world's population - 2.4 billion, lack access to basic sanitation and 80% of disease in developing world is due to lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene.

In India, 600 million do not have access to toilets which affects most urban slums dwellers and rural people. There are 13 million bucket latrines that require over 750,000 scavengers to collect excreta. 74% of the rural population defecates outdoor and 73 million working days are lost due to sickness from unsafe water and no sanitation. Only 15% of the primary schools in India have toilets, resulting in a high female drop-out rate.

Approach
This research and development investigates a complex Indian problem affecting health and hygiene of all citizens. It develops contextual research methods to study age old practice grounded in history, tradition, and culture, employing multiple methods to study this complex problem.
It will generate information about Indian body, practice, life and living, and collect data of design importance.
Finally, a specific design of public toilets for all users in urban poor communities will be proposed.


Conclusion
At the moment, the project is in progress and early results from three out of seven studies are just coming in. The ethnographic study with urban slum communities is producing information about why people use outdoor facilities and the implications of water shortage in public bathrooms. The evidence-based research called 'Trace Study' is generating environmental information about use, abuse, and everyday practices. A full scale simulation of bathroom environments is producing physical and spatial dimensions as well as examining the validity of current bathroom standards in India.


Extensions
Yet to be determined.

References
Ara, Shabeen (2009). 'Housing facilities for the elderly in India', Volume 23, Numbers
3-4, 107-114, 2009.
url.iidi.in

Arima, E. Y. (1975). 'A contextual study of the Caribou Eskimo kayak', National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.

Bauman, Richard (1986). 'Story, performance and event: Contextual studies of oral narratives', Cambridge University Press.

Biswas-Diener, Robert and Diener, Ed. (1990). 'Making the Best of a Bad Situation: Satisfaction in the Slums of
Calcutta', Culture and Well-Being, 2009, Volume 38, 261-278
url.iidi.in
url.iidi.in

Bressler Group, December 12, 2010.
url.iidi.in

Burra, Sundar; Patel, Sheela; Kerr, Thomas (2003). Community-designed, built and managed toilet blocks in Indian cities. Environment and Urbanization, 15:11. Published by Sage Publisher, 2003.

Brown, Rahul (2010). Will the Peepoo Disposable Toilet Work For Indian Slums? New York Times, March 4
url.iidi.in

Desai, Shweta (2010). '200 city slums, 10 lakh people, not one toilet', Express India, Nov 06, 2009, December 12
url.iidi.in

Dube S.C. (1998). 'Indian Village', Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

Holtzblatt, Karen; Burns Wendell Jessamyn; Wood, Shelley (2004), 'Rapid
Contextual Design: A How-to Guide to Key Techniques for User-Centered
Design', Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

India Begins Releasing New Housing, Slum Data, 05/31/2010, December 12, 2020.
url.iidi.in

Madrigal, Demetrius (2010). 'Contextual Interviews and Ethnography: Two Different Types of Home Visits', www.usabilitypost.com
url.iidi.in

Nessman, Ravi (2010). 'India: Land of many cell phones, fewer toilets', The Associated Press
url.iidi.in

Rupa Chinai (2002). 'Slums spruce up toilet manners', The Times of India
url.iidi.in

ACM SIGCHI Bulletin (2010). 'Seven Experiences with Contextual Field Research', Volume 20 Issue 4
url.iidi.in


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